F - J


Face » 
The exposed area of a coal bed from which coal is being extracted.
Face Cleat » 
The principal cleavage plane or joint at right angles to the stratification of the coal seam.
Face conveyor » 
Any conveyor used parallel to a working face which delivers coal into another conveyor or into a car.
Factor of safety » 
The ratio of ultimate breaking strength of the material to the force exerted against it.
Fall » 
A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen in any part of a mine.
Fan(Auxiliary) » 
A small, portable fan used to supplement the ventilation of an individual working place.
Fan(Booster) » 
A large fan installed in the main air current and thus in tandem with the main fan.
Fan single » 
Automation device designed to give alarm if the main fan slows down or stops.
Fault » 
A fault is fracture in rock usually associated with lateral/vertical displacement of the fractured beds.
Feeder » 
A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor belt evenly.
Fill » 
Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide ground support.
Fire Damp » 
the combustible gas,methane(CH4). also, the explosive methane-air mixtures with between 5% and 15% methane.
Fissure » 
An extensive crack, break or fracture in the rock.
Fixed Carbon » 
The part of the carbon that remains behind when coal is heated in a closed vessel until all of the volatile matter is driven off.
Flat-lying » 
Said of deposits and coal seam with a dip up to 5 degrees.
Flight » 
The metal strap or crossbar attached to the drag chain-and-flight conveyor.
Float Dust » 
fine coal-dust particles carried in suspension by air current and eventually deposited in return entries.
Floor » 
That part of any underground working upon which a person walks or upon which haulage equipment travels;simply the bottom or underlying surface of an underground excavation.
Fly Ash » 
The finely divided particles of ash suspended in gases resulting from the combustion of fuel. Electrostatic precipitators are used to remove fly ash from the gases prior to the release from a power plants smokestack.
Footwall » 
The wall or rock on the underside of the veins i.e, ore bodies is called as footwall.
Formation » 
Any assemblage of rock which have some character in common, whether of origin, age or composition.
Fossil Fuel » 
Any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature, such as coal oil and natural gas.
Fracture » 
A general term to include any kind of discontinuity in a body of rock if produced by mechanical failure, whether by shear stress or tensile stress.
Friable » 
Easy to break, or crumbling naturally.

Fuse » 
A cord like substance used in the ignition of exolosives.


Gallery » 
A horizontal or a nearly horizontal u/g passage,either natural or artificial
Gasification » 
Any of various processes by which coal is turned into low,medium, or high BTU gases.
Geologist » 
One who studies the constitution,structure and history of the earths crust
Gob » 
The term applied to that part of the mine from which the coal has been removed and the space more or less filled up with waste.Also called GOAF.
Grain » 
In petrology,that factor of the texture of a rock composed of distinct principles or crystals which depends upon their absolute size.
Grizzly » 
Course screening or scalping device that prevents oversized bulk material from entering a material transfer system.
Ground Control » 
The regulation and final arresting of the closure of the walls of a mined area. The term generally refers to measures taken to prevent roof falls or coal bursts.
Gunite » 
A cement applied by spraying to the roof and sides of a mine passage.


Haulage » 
The horizontal transport of ore,coal,supplies and waste.The vertical of the same is called HOISTING.
Headframe » 
The structure surmounting the shaft which supports the hoist rope pulley, and often the hoist itself.
Heading » 
A vein above a drift. An interior level or airway driven in a mine.In L/W workings,a narrow passage driven upward from a gangway in starting a working in order to give a loose end.
Head Section » 
A term used in both belt and chain conveyor work to designate that portion of the conveyor used for discharging material.
Heaving » 
Applied to the rising of the bottom after removal of the coal.
Highwall » 
The unexcavated face of the exposed O/B and coal in a surface mine or in a face or bank on the uphill side of a contour mine excavation.
Hogsback » 
A sharp rise in the floor of a seam.
Hoist » 
A drum on which hoisting rope is wound in the engine house, as the cage or skip is raised in the hoisting shaft.
Hoisting » 
The vertical transport coal or material.
Horizon » 
In geology, any given definite position or interval in the stratigraphic column or the scheme of stratigraphic classification.
Horseback » 
A mass of material with a slippery surface in the roof.
Hydrocarbon » 
A family of chemical compounds contail carbon and hydrogen atoms in various combinations,found especially in fossil fuels.


Inby » 
In the direction of the working face.
Incline » 
Any entry to a mine that is not vertical or horizontal.
Incompetent » 
Applied to strata,a formation,a rock,or a rock structure not combining sufficient firmness and flexibility to transmit a thrust and to lift a load by bending.
In Situ » 
In the natural or original position.Applied to a rock,soil,or fossil when occuring in the situation in which it was originally formed or deposited.
Intake » 
The passage through which fresh air is drawn or forced into a mine or to a section of a mine.
Intermidiete Section » 
A term used in belt and chain conveyor network to designate a section of the conveyor frame occupying a positio b/w the head and foot sections.
Ommediete Roof » 
The roof strata immediately above the coal bed,requiring support during the excavation of coal.
Isopach » 
A line,on a map,drawn through points of equal thickness of a designated unit.


Jackleg » 
A percussion drill used for drifting or stopping that is mounted on a telescopic leg which has an extension of about 2.5m.
Jackrock » 
A caltrop or other manufactured with one or more rounded or sharpened points,which when placed or thrown present at least one point at such an angle that it is peculiar to and designed for use in puncturing or damaging vehicle tyres.
Job Safety Analysis(J.S.A.) » 
A job breakdown that gives a safe,efficient job procedure.
Joint » 
A divisional plane or surface that divides a rock and along which there has been no visible movement parallel to the plane or surface.

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