U - Z


Ultimate Analysis » 
Precise determination, by chemical means, of the elements and compounds in coal.
Undercut » 
To cut below or undermine the coal face by chipping away the coal by pick or mining machine. In some localities the terms undermine or underhole are used.
Underground Mine » 
Also known as a DEEP mine.Usually located several hundred feet below the earth surface, an underground mine coal is removed mechanically and transferred by shuttle car or conveyor to the surface.
Underground Station » 
An enlargement of an entry,drift or level at a shaft at which cage stop to receive and discharge cars,personnel and material.An underground station is any location where stationary electrical equipment is installed. this includes pump room,compressor room, hoist room, battery-charging room etc.
Unit Train » 
A long train of between 60 and 150 or more hopper cars,carrying only coal between a single mine and destination.
Universal Coal Cutter » 
A type of coal cutting machine which is designed to make horizontal cuts in a coal face at any point between the bottom and top or to make shearing cuts at any point between the two ribs of the place. the cutter bar can be twisted to make cuts at any angle to the horizontal or vertical.
Upcast Shaft » 
A shaft through which air leaves the mine.


Valuation » 
The act or process of valuing or of estimating the value or worth ; appraisal.
velocity » 
Rate of airflow in lineal feet per minute.
Ventilation » 
The provision of a directed flow of fresh and return air along all underground roadways, traveling roads, working and service parts.
Violation » 
The breaking of any state or federal mining law.
Virgin » 
Unworked;untouched;often said of areas where there has been no coal mining.
Void » 
A general term for pore space or other reopenings in rock. in addition to pore space, the term include vesicles,solution cavities, or any openings either primary or secondary.
Volatile Matter » 
The gaseous part,mostly hydrocarbons, of coal.


Waste » 
That rock or mineral which must be removed from a mine to keep the mining scheme practical, but which has no value.
Water Gauge(Stander U-tube) » 
Instrument that measures differential pressure in inches of water.
Wedge » 
A piece of wood tapering to a thin edge and used for tightening in conventional timbering.
Weight » 
Fracturing and lowering of the roof strata at the face as a result of mining operations, as in TAKING WEIGHT.
white Dump » 
Carbon Monoxide,co. A gas that may be present in the afterdamp of a gas- or coal-dust explosive,or in the gases given off by a mine fire;also one of the constituents of the gases produced by blasting.
Width » 
The thickness of a lode measured at right angle to the dip.
Winning » 
The excavation, loading and removal of coal or ore from the ground; winning follows developed.
Winze » 
Secondary or tertiary vertical or near-vertical opening sunk from a point inside a mine for the purpose of connecting with a lower level or exploring the ground for a limited depth below a level.
Wire rope » 
A steel wire rope for winding in shafts and underground haulage. wire rope are made from medium carbon steel.wire ropes are designated by the number of strands in the reopened the number of wires in each strand.
Working » 
When a coal seam is being squeezed by pressure from roof and floor,it emits creaking noises and is said to be WORKING.
Working Face » 
Any place in a mine where material is extracted during a mining cycle.
Working Section » 
From the faces to the point where coal is loaded onto belts or rail cars to begin its trip to the outside.

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