Graphite is a naturally-occurring form of crystalline carbon. It is a native element mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Graphite is a mineral of extremes. It is extremely soft, cleaves with very light pressure, and has a very low specific gravity. In contrast, it is extremely resistant to heat and nearly inert in contact with almost any other material. These extreme properties give it a wide range of uses in metallurgy and manufacturing.

Physical Properties

Physical Properties of Graphite

Chemical Classification Native element
Color Steel gray to black
Streak Black
Luster Metallic, sometimes earthy
Diaphaneity Opaque
Cleavage Perfect in one direction
Mohs Hardness 1 to 2
Specific Gravity 2.1 to 2.3
Diagnostic Properties Color, streak, slippery feel, specific gravity
Chemical Composition C
Crystal System Hexagonal
Uses Used to manufacture heat and chemical resistant containers and other objects. Battery anodes. A dry lubricant. The "lead" in pencils.

Geologic Occurrence

Graphite is a mineral that forms when carbon is subjected to heat and pressure in Earth's crust and in the upper mantle. Pressures in the range of 75,000 pounds per square inch and temperatures in the range of 750 degrees Celsius are needed to produce graphite. These correspond to the granulite metamorphic facies.

Graphite and Diamond

Graphite and diamond are the two mineral forms of carbon. Diamond forms in the mantle under extreme heat and pressure. Most graphite found near Earth's surface was formed within the crust at lower temperatures and pressures. Graphite and diamond share the same composition but have very different structures.
The carbon atoms in graphite are linked in a hexagonal network which forms sheets that are one atom thick. These sheets are poorly connected and easily cleave or slide over one another if subjected to a small amount of force. This gives graphite its very low hardness, its perfect cleavage, and its slippery feel.

In contrast, the carbon atoms in diamond are linked into a frameworks structure. Every carbon atom is linked into a three-dimensional network with four other carbon atoms with strong covalent bonds. This arrangement holds the atoms firmly in place and makes diamond an exceptionally hard material.



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