Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds. In contrast soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals such as salt, coal, or oil sands.

    Underground Mining Methods 



         1. Longwall

        2. Room and Pillar

        3. Bord and Pillar

        4. Sublevel Caving

        5. Block Caving